Is it permissible to quote and rely upon information found in Shia kitaabs?

Q: I recently received e-mails and other whatsapp messages which claim that some years after Hazrat Husain (radhiyallahu anhu) was killed, the Shia of Kufah came out seeking revenge for his death. Apparently, the leader of these Shias was Sulaimaan bin Surad, and they were named ‘Tawwaaboon’ (the repentant ones). They fought against Ubaidullah bin Ziyaad and most of them, including their leader, Sulaimaan bin Surad, were killed in this battle. The information quoted in these messages has been taken from kitaabs of the Shia. Is this information correct, and is it correct to quote from the kitaabs of the Shia?

A: Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was a Sahaabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Hence, to accuse him of being a Shia is extremely serious and detrimental to one’s Imaan. In many Ahaadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has prohibited us from cursing, reviling and speaking ill of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has even cursed those who insult and degrade the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum).

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تسبوا أصحابي فلو أن أحدكم أنفق مثل أحد ذهبا ما بلغ مد أحدهم ولا نصيفه (صحيح البخاري رقم 3673)

Do not speak ill of my Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum), for if one of you has to spend gold equal to the mountain of Uhud in charity, it will not reach (the reward of) one mudd (796g) given by my Sahaabi, or even half a mudd (384.5g) given by my Sahaabi.”

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has also mentioned:

عن عبد الله بن مغفل قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الله الله في أصحابي الله الله في أصحابي لا تتخذوهم غرضا بعدي فمن أحبهم فبحي أحبهم ومن أبغضهم فببغضي أبغضهم ومن آذاهم فقد آذاني ومن آذاني فقد آذى الله ومن آذى الله فيوشك أن يأخذه (سنن الترمذي رقم 3862)

Fear Allah, Fear Allah regarding (insulting and speaking ill of) my Sahaabah! Fear Allah, Fear Allah regarding (insulting and speaking ill of) my Sahaabah! Do not make them a target (of abuse and insult) after me. Whoever loves them, then it is because of love for me that he loves them, and whoever has enmity for them, then it is because of enmity for me that he has enmity for them. The one who harms them has harmed me, and the one who harms me has displeased Allah, and the one who displeases Allah, Allah will very soon seize him (in punishment).

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) explained that the one who speaks ill of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) is an accursed person saying:

عن ابن عباس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من سب أصحابي لعنه الله والملائكة والناس أجمعون (مجمع الزوائد رقم 16426)

The one who speaks ill of my Sahaabah – may the curse of Allah, the Angels and all the people be upon him.

The Muhadditheen have accepted Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu) to be a Sahaabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Haafiz ibn Hajar (Rahimahullah) has written in Isaabah:

وكان خيرا فاضلا شهد صفين مع علي وقتل حوشبا مبارزة ثم كان ممن كاتب الحسين ثم تخلف عنه ثم قدم هو والمسيب بن نجبة في آخرين فخرجوا في الطلب بدمه (وفي رواية ابن عبد البر فلما قتل الحسين ندم هو والمسيب بن نجبة الفزاري وجميع من خذله ولم يقاتل معه ثم قالوا ما لنا توبة مما فعلنا إلا أن نقتل أنفسنا في الطلب بدمه (تهذيب الكمال 11/456)[1] وهم أربعة آلاف فالتقاهم عبيد الله بن زياد بعين الوردة بعسكر مروان فقتل سليمان ومن معه وذلك في سنة خمس وستين في شهر ربيع الآخر وكان لسليمان يوم قتل ثلاث وتسعون سنة وكان الذي قتل سليمان يزيد بن الحصين بن نمير رماه بسهم فمات وحمل رأسه ورأس المسيب إلى مروان (الإصابة 3/144)

He was a pious and righteous person who participated in the Battle of Siffeen on the side of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and killed Hawshab in a duel. Thereafter, he was among those who had written letters to Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) (calling him to Kufa). He then remained behind (from fighting on the side of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) against the army of Yazeed on account of the army of Yazid being very powerful and him being at the advanced age of 89). (After Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was martyred,) Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu), Musayyib bin Najabah and others came out, seeking revenge for the blood of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu).(According to another narration, when Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was martyred, Hazrat Sulaimaan (Radhiyallahu Anhu), Musayyib bin Najabah and all those who did not assist Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and did not fight with him against the oppressors felt remorse and regret. Thereafter, they said, “There is no repentance for what we have done except by us sacrificing our lives in seeking revenge for the blood of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu).) They were four thousand in number. Ubaidullah bin Ziyaad encountered them at Ainul Wardah with the army of Marwaan. Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and his group were killed. This occurred in Rabee’ul Awwal of the year 65 A.H. At the time of his martyrdom, Hazrat Sulaimaan (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was ninety three years old. The person who killed Hazrat Sulaimaan (Radhiyallahu Anhu) was Yazeed bin Husain bin Numair, who fired an arrow at him that caused his death. The heads of Hazrat Sulaimaan (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and Musayyib were then taken to Marwaan.

It should be borne in mind that the word ‘shia’ has a literal meaning as well as a terminological meaning. As far as the literal meaning is concerned, it refers to ‘group’. This word has also been used in the Qur’aan Majeed and the Ahaadith. Allah Ta’ala says:

وَ اِنَّ مِنۡ شِیۡعَتِہٖ لَاِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ﴿ۘ۸۳﴾

And indeed from his group (the group of Nabi Nuh (Alaihis Salaam)) was Hazrat Ebrahim (Alaihis Salaam)

Hazrat Ebrahim (Alaihis Salaam) was regarded as being from among the group of Hazrat Nuh (Alaihis Salaam) on account of him following him in the principles of Tauheed and the teachings of Deen. Similarly, we find this word used in the Hadith in reference to the group of Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) who fought on the side of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu). Allaamah Suyooti (Rahimahullah) mentioned regarding Hazrat Abut Tufail, Aamir bin Waathilah Al-Laithy (Radhiyallahu Anhu), the Sahaabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), that he was among the Shia of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu), referring to the group of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu).

وكان من شيعة علي[2]

And he was among the Shia of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu)

Just as this word is used in the literal meaning, as we have seen, this word is also used in the terminological meaning referring to the deviated sect. When the word refers to the deviated sect of the Shias, it refers to those people who do not subscribe to the beliefs and actions of Islam. Rather, they subscribe to such beliefs and actions that take them out of the fold of Islam. They regard the Qur’aan Majeed to be distorted and attribute false allegations to the Azwaaj-e-Mutahharaat (The pure wives of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)). They revile the Sahaabah (Radiyallahu Anhum) and believe that the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) had turned apostate after the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) (Al-Iyaazubillah). They believe in prostitution being permissible. People holding such beliefs are not Muslims. 

As far as Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu), the Sahaabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), is concerned, it is reported in the books of Taareekh (history) that he was from the شيعة (group) of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and was killed in battle while fighting against those who were responsible for killing Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and the Ahl-e-Bayt at Karbala. It was during this battle that he was martyred. The Shia wrongly attribute him to be among their Shia leaders, as his group was referred to as شيعة (group) of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu). 

When the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) referred to شيعة (group) of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu), they intended the literal meaning of شيعة which is ‘group’. A proof of this is that while encouraging Hazrat Husain (radhiyallahu anhu) to go to Kufa, Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (radhiyallahu anhu) mentioned the following:

حدثني وهب قال حدثني جويرية بن أسماء قال سمعت أشياخنا من أهل المدينة ما لا أحصي يحدثون ... فقال له ابن الزبير : ما يمنعك من شيعتك وشيعة أبيك؟ فوالله لو أن لي مثلهم لذهبت (تاريخ خليفة بن خياط ص177-178)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radhiyallahu Anhu) said to Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu), “What prevents you from joining your شيعة and the شيعة of your father? By Allah! If I had the likes of them, I would definitely go!”

This narration has been recorded in Taareekh Khaleefah bin Khayyaat by the esteemed Ustaad of Imaam Bukhaari (Rahimahullah), Imam Khaleefah bin Khayyaat (Rahimahullah). Imaam Bukhaari (Rahimahullah) has also accepted his Ahaadeeth in Bukhaari Shareef. Imaam Zahabi (Rahimahullah) has also quoted this narration in Taareekhul Islam.

If the word ‘الشيعة’ referred to the deviated sect, as known today, Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radhiyallahu Anhu) would have never encouraged Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) to join this deviated sect. Can we ever imagine Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radhiyallahu Anhu) encouraging Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) to join a deviated sect, while referring to them as the group of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu) and his father, Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu)? It is thus important for one to understand the correct context in which the word ‘الشيعة’ is used before arriving at any conclusion.

The Shias have written in their books that Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu), the Sahaabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), was the leader of the Shias, on account of him being mentioned from the الشيعة (group) of Hazrat Husain (Radhiyallahu Anhu).  It is not permissible for a believer to accept what he finds in the books of the Shia. Shias are liars and they believe in Taqiyyah (holy hypocrisy). They regard it an act of worship to lie and deceive people. Their kitaabs are replete with lies and fabrications.

How can one ever rely on the information that he finds in the kitaabs of the Shia? The result of referring to their kitaabs and arriving at conclusions is that one falls into grave errors and blunders such as leveling accusations against the illustrious Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and regarding them to be the leaders of the Shias, just as in this case, through quoting statements from the books of the Shias, the wrong notion has been spread regarding Hazrat Sulaimaan bin Surad (Radhiyallahu Anhu) that he was responsible for spearheading the army of the Shias.

The Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) are the forerunners in Deen. They are the medium between the ummah and Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Allah Ta’ala used them and accepted them for the preservation of the Qur’aan Majeed, the Mubaarak Sunnah and the knowledge of Deen. Since they were responsible for conveying the knowledge of the Qur’aan Majeed and the Mubaarak Sunnah to the ummah, one can understand that the entire superstructure of Deen rests on the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). If one removes the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) from the equation, nothing of Deen will remain protected and safeguarded. The authenticity of the Qur’aan Majeed and the reliability of the Ahaadith of Rasululullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) will be totally lost. Hence it is the ploy of the Shias to defame, revile and criticize the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) in order to destroy the entire Deen of Islam.

Hazrat Muhammed bin Seereen (Rahimahullah) has emphasized the importance of one exercising caution in the avenues through which he acquires Deen saying:

إن هذا العلم دين فانظروا عمن تأخذون دينكم[3]

This knowledge is (your) Deen. Therefore, be cautious regarding those from whom you take your Deen.

May Allah Ta’ala save us from attributing anything to the Sahaabah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) that is not true.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

[1] قال أبو عمر بن عبد البر كان خيرا فاضلا له دين وعبادة كان اسمه في الجاهلية يسارا فسماه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم سليمان سكن الكوفة وابتنى بها دارا في خزاعة وكان نزوله بها في أول ما نزلها المسلمون وكانت له سن عالية وشرف في قومه وشهد مع علي صفين وهو الذي قتل حوشبا ذا ظليم الألهاني بصفين مبارزة ثم اختلط الناس يومئذ وكان فيمن كتب إلى الحسين بن علي يسأله القدوم إلى الكوفة فلما قدمها ترك القتال معه فلما قتل الحسين ندم هو والمسيب بن نجبه الفزاري وجميع من خذله ولم يقاتل معه ثم قالوا ما لنا توبة مما فعلنا الا ان نقتل أنفسنا في الطلب بدمه فخرجوا وعسكروا بالنخيلة وذلك مستهل ربيع الأخر سنة خمس وستين وولوا أمرهم سليمان بن صرد وسموه أمير التوابين ثم ساروا إلى عبيد الله بن زياد فلقوا مقدمته في أربعة آلاف عليها شرحبيل بن ذي الكلاع فاقتتلوا فقتل سليمان بن صرد والمسيب بن نجبة بموضع يقال له عين الوردة وقيل انهم خرجوا إلى الشام في الطلب بدم الحسين فسموا التوابين وكانوا أربعة آلاف فقتل سليمان بن صرد رماه يزيد بن الحصين بن نمير بسهم فقتله وحمل رأسه ورأس المسيب بن نجبة إلى مروان بن الحكم أدهم بن محرز الباهلي وكان سليمان يوم قتل بن ثلاث وتسعين سنة (تهذيب الكمال 11/456)

[2] عامر بن واثلة بن عبد الله بن عمرو أبو الطفيل الليثي ولد عام أحد وروى عن النبي صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وعن أبي بكر، وعمر، وعلي، وابن مسعود، ومعاذ، وحذيفة، وسلمان، وجماعة وعنه قتادة، والزهري، وأبو الزبير، وعمرو بن دينار، وخلق نزل الكوفة، وكان من شيعة علي، ثم سكن مكة إلى أن مات بها سنة مائة، ويقال سنة سبع ومائة، وهو آخر الصحابة موتا (موطا مالك للأعظمي 6/61)

[3] مقدمة صحيح مسلم

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

Category: